He argued that ‘aberrant conduct’ might arise where there is a disassociation between culturally defined aspirations and ‘socially structured means’ of achieving these goals (Merton, 1938: p. 674). A power and deviance approach specifies and then seeks to elaborate the conditions under which amorphous behavior becomes ‘defined’ as deviant, or behavior that was once characterized as deviant becomes ‘redefined’ as some kind of nondeviant conduct or attribute, as in the case, for example, when the medical or psychiatric communities redefine a deviant behavior as a physiological malady or cognitive abnormality (i.e., ‘sickness’). For one, it can take place at the collective or individual level. In so doing, it was felt that young people may engage in innovation, whereby conflict and frustration are eliminated by rejecting conventional means of achieving success and by creating alternatives. However, Tittle argues that deviant behavior ‘Deviant is a device’ that ‘helps people escape deficits and extend surpluses.’ Early strain theorists emphasized failures to achieve widely shared success goals, and Tittle incorporates problems in achieving more basic human needs or goals as providing motivation or ‘predispositions’ for deviant action. It is called a ‘general strain’ theory because it is not limited to the specific types of frustrated goal achievement emphasized in the original development of the theory (i.e., failure to achieve positive goals). At the end of his chapter on anomic form, Durkheim discussed another kind of pathological characteristic of industrial societies: the alienation of the worker performing an overspecialized task. While it is accepted that there are competing power elites, it is believed that by the nature of their competing interests no group is able to wield an inordinate amount of control or power over another. This situation is in fact the opposite of progressive – true – anomie, where the wide, open horizon of the possible leads to unlimited desires. Anomie theory sometimes seems to fit empirical reality, but sometimes not. Control theory originally answered its question about the roots of conformity with reference to civil society. Guyau opposed anomie to autonomie (Kantian autonomy). Such theories are classified here as part of the strain tradition in that they all include an imbalance of some kind that provides the motivation for violating laws. The word “anomie” derives from the Greek word arwmia, meaning lawlessness or “without law,”2 and refers to societal in-stability resulting from a breakdown in broadly accepted vrdues, as well as wide-spread personal feAings of uncertainty and alienation. R.J. Sampson, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. This occurs during a time of economic and social change, where there is no clear guide for … Crime pattern theories. Cohen (1955) also wrote an influential treatise on delinquent subcultures, but his focus was on the status frustration of lower-class boys in an educational system dominated by middle-class standards. Consensus of definition with respect to ‘gang’ culture does not exist today, with criteria varying across jurisdictions. J.-P. Brodeur, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. More recently, Elijah Anderson's (1999: p. 32) pioneering ethnographic study into urban street life in Philadelphia, the USA, highlights that the inclination to violence “springs from the circumstances of life among the ghetto poor – the lack of jobs that pay a living wage, limited basic public services … the stigma of race, the fallout from rampant drug use.” Young men who feel disrespected by others out on the street need to avenge their honor, and require ‘running buddies’ or ‘homies’ that can be depended upon to back them up (Anderson, 1999: p. 73). Even institutionalized anomie wayside during the political issues of definition with respect ‘. The traditional concern with motivation, despite their revolution in perspective reaction is the concept, thought of as normlessness! Deviance as necessary for society and contributing to its overall stability of pluralism however, theorizing... 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